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Abstract: A brief summary of the points in an article. A source that compiles, by subject, author or title articles in a selected group of periodicals and includes a summary of each article.

Author:The writer of a book or article. Usually this is a person (or several people), but it can also be a government agency, a symposium, a company, or other group that does not necessarily give the name(s) of the people who actually wrote the work. Such an author is referred to as a Corporate Author.

Bibliography: A list of citations or references to books or periodical articles on a particular topic. Bibliographies can appear at the end of a book, journal, or encyclopedia article, or in a separate publication. Sometimes bibliographies are annotated, that is, they include brief abstracts summarizing the important features of the works. Bibliographies of both types can be very valuable in locating information on a subject.

Bibliographic services: Basically are those which guide the users of the libraries to the documents wherein their required information is likely to be available.

Types of Bibliographic services

Current awareness service (CAS): Is intended to meet the current approach and ensures that all the current information likely to influence the progress of research worker is made available at the right time and in convenient form.

Indexing and Abstracting Services (IAS): Basically provides retrospective information. It is also available as secondary document publication.

Literature search: Comprehensive search in bibliographies of users need to know about everything that has been published on a subject.

Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI): Keep users informed with the new development of their areas of interest, provides notification of documents, provide bibliographical details with / without abstract etc.

Book: A printed or written literary work. It is handwritten or printed work of fiction or nonfiction, usually on sheets of paper fastened or bound together within covers. E-book is a portable electronic device used to download andread books or magazines that are in digital form.

Bound volume: Formed when issues of a periodical title are gathered to form a hardback volume. Also referred as bound periodicals where in several consecutive issues of a Journals, periodicals or newspaper, are placed together between two hardcovers so they resemble a book. These may be shelved with the print collection, in the stacks.

Citation: Basic information about a specific source of information. A citation for a book will include the Author, Title, and Place of publication, Publisher, and Year of publication. A citation for an article in the Periodical will add the title of the periodical, volume number, pages and date. A bibliography is a group of citations. It is a reference or footnote to an item needed to locate the item.

Citation Styles: A particular method of documenting references such as the Modern Language Association or American Psychological Association, Chicago manual etc. to name a few.

Copyright: The legal right to control the production, use, and sale of copies of a literary, musical, or artistic work. It is protection of intellectual property for a certain period of time.

Document delivery service: If an article/paper in a journal/book/conference preceding one needs is not available in Library's collection, then it is procured through other library (as per prior agreement made) under Document Delivery Service (DDS) will be obtained.

E- Journal: A journal, or version of a journal that is produced online i.e. in an electronic format..

Encyclopaedia: A book or multi-volume set containing articles on a range of subjects. An encyclopedia may be general and multidisciplinary, or subject specific and comprehensive.

Foot notes: Enables researchers to substantiate presentation by quotation or citations of other authorities. They are placed at the bottom of the page.

Intellectual property: It refers to creations of the mind: inventions; literary and artistic works; and symbols, names and images used in commerce. Intellectual property is divided into two categories:
Industrial Property includes patents for inventions, trademarks, industrial designs and geographical indications.
Copyright covers literary works (such as novels, poems and plays), films, music, artistic works (e.g., drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures) and architectural design. Rights related to copyright include those of performing artists in their performances, producers of phonograms in their recordings, and broadcasters in their radio and television programs.

Journal: It is a type of periodical which contains signed scholarly articles. Journals are usually published by academic or association presses and include bibliographies. Thus it's publication that contains scholarly articles written either by professors, researchers, or experts in a subject area. An abstract and a bibliography usually appear with each article.

Intellectual property Rights (IPRs): They allow creators, or owners, of patents, trademarks or copyrighted works to benefit from their own work or investment in a creation. These rights are outlined in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which provides for the right to benefit from the protection of moral and material interests resulting from authorship of scientific, literary or artistic productions.

Inter Library Loan: (ILL) is a service which will obtain a book or a copy of an article from another library.

ISBN: It is an International Standard Book Number. It was 10 digits in length up to the end of December 2006, but since 1 January 2007 they consist of 13 digits. ISBNs are calculated using a specific mathematical formula and include a check digit to validate the number. ISBN is essentially a product identifier used by publishers, booksellers, libraries, internet retailers and other supply chain participants for ordering, listing, sales records and stock control purposes. The ISBN identifies the registrant as well as the specific title, edition and format.

ISSN: The ISSN is the International Standard Serial Number, which allows the identification of serial publications. It's a standard numeric code made up of 8 digits whose last digit is a control character that may be the letter "X". The ISSN distinguishes a particular serial from others. The ISSN also helps library patrons, libraries, and others who handle large numbers of serials to find and identify titles in automated systems more quickly and easily. Serials often undergo changes (of publisher, frequency, format, edition, country of origin), which do not affect the ISSN. However, if the title changes significantly, a new ISSN must be assigned.

Keyword searching: Keyword: Generally, this refers to searching a database using "natural language."It results in a list of database records that contain all the keywords entered as search terms, according to the logic of the search.

Magazine: A periodical intended for the general public rather than for scholars. Examples are India Today, Outlook, Time, and Business Week etc.

Online services: Most modern facilities provided through computer applications today. It is direct communication with the computer on which the database is loaded. It is quick, accurate, wider and exhaustive.

Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC): An OPAC is an online bibliography of a library collection that is available to the user with in the library or through intranet by Web OPAC.

Periodical: Materials published at regular intervals (at least 3 times a year) and intended to be continued indefinitely. Examples of periodicals include magazines, journals, and newsletters. Thus it a publication that appears on a continuous and predictable schedule.

Plagiarism: Plagiarism can be defined as the "deliberate act of taking the words, ideas, data, illustrative material, or statements of someone else, without full and proper acknowledgement, and presenting them as one's own." It is a serious offence.

Primary sources: Fundamental, authoritative documents relating to a subject, used in the preparation of a later work, e.g., original record, contemporary documents, etc. Synonymous with original sources and source material.

Reference sources: The documents which are used for acquiring the answer of the reference queries are called reference sources.

Types of Reference Sources

Almanac usually a one-volume work with statistics and a compilation of specific facts (e.g. World almanac and Book of Facts, and Information Please Almanac)
Atlas a book of maps and geographical information (e.g. Atlas of American History) Bibliography a compilation of sources of information, provides literature on a specific subject or by a specific author (e.g. Books in Print and Bibliography of African Literatures)
Biographical sources of information about the lives of people; short entries (e.g. Dictionary Current Biography and Who's Who in America)
Chronology lists the events described in order of the date on which they occurred
Concordance an alphabetical listing of keywords or phrases found the in work of an author or work in a collection of writings (e.g. Topical Bible Concordance)
Dictionary defines words and terms; confirms spelling, definition, and pronunciation; used to find out how words are used; helps to locate synonyms and antonyms and to trace the origin of words (e.g. Webster's Dictionary)
Directory lists names and addresses of individuals, companies, organizations, and institutions (e.g. Encyclopaedia of Associations)
Encyclopaedia covers knowledge or branches of knowledge in a comprehensive, but summary fashion; useful for providing facts and giving a broad survey of a topic; written by specialists (e.g. World Book Encyclopaedia)
Gazetteer a dictionary of geographical places (no maps) (e.g. Webster's New Geographical Dictionary)
Guidebook provides detailed descriptions of places; intended primarily for the traveller; geographical facts plus maps (e.g. Great Lakes Guidebook)
Handbook treats one broad subject in brief, or gives a brief survey of a subject (e.g. Handbook of American Popular Culture)
Index lists citations to periodical articles, book, and proceedings, and tells where they can be found (e.g. Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature and New York Times Index)
Manual a specific work that tells how to do something, such as how something operates; descriptions of the inner workings of an organization (e.g. MLA Handbook, and Broadcast News Manual of Style)
Yearbook covers the trends and events of the previous year; may be general in coverage, limited to one subject, or restricted to one geographical area (e.g. State of America's Children Yearbook)

Resource sharing: It means sharing of all these resources for the mutual benefit of libraries and their users, which is one of the cooperative way of doing work.

Review of Literature: A literature review is study of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. It is often a part of the introduction to an essay, research report, or thesis. People writing the literature review try to convey to their readers what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are argued one of main roles of the literature review is to enlarge people's knowledge about the topic. He also mentioned that conducting a literature review, an author can also gain and demonstrate skills in following two areas:
Information seeking: the ability to scan the literature efficiently, using manual or computerized methods, to identify a set of useful articles and books
Critical appraisal: the ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies.

Secondary sources: Books or articles that explain or analyse primary sources .

Serial: Serials are print or non-print publications issued in parts, usually bearing issue numbers and/or dates. A serial is expected to continue indefinitely. Serials include magazines, newspapers, annuals (such as reports, yearbooks, and directories), journals, memoirs, proceedings, transactions of societies, and mono graphic series.

Sources of literature: Books & text books material, Journals and periodicals, Abstracts, Encyclopaedia's Almanacs, Handbooks, Yearbooks & Guides, specialized dictionaries, e-resource, Digital Libraries e-repositories of dissertations and thesis like Vidyanidhi & Shodhaganga, Newspapers etc.

Tertiary sources: Reference works that identify, point out, summarize, abstract, or repackage the information provided in primary and secondary sources . It includes dictionaries, encyclopaedias,handbooks , etc.